Tuesday, May 6, 2008

Reviewing Atlas Shrugged

I recently finished Ayn Rand’s Atlas Shrugged. At almost the same time, I finished Douglas Adams’ Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. Atlas Shrugged is long, serious, and tries to explain the meaning of life. Adams’ book is short, funny, and also attempts to explain the meaning of life. Rand’s philosophy is Objectivism. Adams’ answer is Forty-Two. Of the two philosophies, Forty-Two makes much more sense.

I find it hard to criticize a book so beloved of so many conservatives—both Clarence Thomas (one of my favorite political figures) and Larry Elder, among others, love the book. But after reading it, I can’t come to any other conclusion. Whittaker Chambers famously censured the book in the pages of National Review. My only complaint is that he went too easy on it.

The plot, while not the main focus of the book, makes absolutely no sense. (Spoiler warning: don’t read on if you don’t want to know what happens). The book focuses on the adventures of Dagny Taggert, controller of a transcontinental railroad, and Hank Reardon, an inventor and steel factor director. There are other characters too: Francisco Domingo Carlos Andres Sebastian d’Anconia (that name is intended to be completely serious), Ragnar Danneskjöld (again, this name is presented with a straight face), Hugh Akston, Midas Mulligan (yep, this name is not a joke either), and John Galt. Don’t worry about keeping all these characters straight—they are all wholly identical, callous, selfish, self-reliant technocrats. And of course, the heroes are attractive, while the villains are the opposite.

Dagny and Reardon both struggle to keep their businesses above water as the socialist government imposes increasingly greater restrictions on business. John Galt goes around spiriting off the world’s capable men to a hidden valley in Colorado as a protest against the totalitarian government. For some reason, he picks Dagny and Reardon to be the last people to join him, so they are faced with a lack of capable men, which hampers their ability to run their businesses. Eventually, (I’m leaving out a lot, but it’s not really that important), Galt achieves his role of complete societal breakdown, and he and his Objectivist friends stay snugly in their utopian valley as the world collapses outside. As the story ends, John Galt (who is a messianic figure) traces over the fallen world the sign of the dollar.

Heartwarming story there, isn’t it? By the way, all this is spread out over about 1200 pages. The events in the story take place over about three years, and it felt as though it took at least that long to read the book.

Fortunately for Rand, the book is not intended to be an entertaining read, but rather an explanation of the correct way of living. (Basically, it is the Objectivist bible, and Rand is the cult’s prophet). It preaches a doctrine of self-reliance, selfishness, and logic. By living life rationally, Rand claims, men can find true happiness on earth. The truly evil people are those who attempt to subvert man’s true selfish instincts by preaching altruism or socialism.

The portrayal of these “moochers” and “looters” is one of the weakest points in Rand’s book. In real life, socialism is attractive simply because it sounds wonderful. When I read one of Michael Moore’s books, I find myself thinking, against everything that I know is true, that he just might have the answers. Socialism doesn’t work, but it always seems as though it represents the end of mankind’s suffering and deprivations. Socialists always make their philosophy sound good—that is the reason it subverts so many.

Rand’s socialists bear no resemblance to their real-life counterparts. Their defense of socialism is unbelievably weak. Nearly every argument between adherents of the two philosophies goes something like this: the socialist spouts the collectivist argument, the capitalist fixes him with a contemptuous stare, and the socialist breaks down and screams that its not his fault. The debates in the book don’t go a whole lot deeper than that.

Lame socialists or not, Rand does make some reasonable attacks on collectivism. However, her philosophy isn’t much better. It displays a misunderstanding of human nature as great as that seen in socialism.

Objectivism is founded on several flawed principles—that man is not a social animal, that altruism is a moral evil, that man can become truly happy while on earth, and that material wealth is the way to happiness.

The idea that man can exist only for his own self-interest and still remain a sense of morality is absurd. If one believes that the goal in life is only material gains, that man will not respect the rights of others—why would he? This form of social Darwinism means that those who are strongest climb to the top by whatever means possible. This sort of man represents the worst kind of looter.

Granted, in Rand’s book, these types of people scrupulously respect property rights, and enjoy a little tough interbusiness competition. Too bad this sort of person doesn’t exist.

The idea that man can become truly happy on earth is also completely unsupported by facts. Perhaps a very few can—but most cannot. Consider, in your own experience, how few people you know who are wholly happy. Even among those who may be have achieved a measure of happiness, consider how easily it could all be taken away; cancer, an accident, or something of that sort. Pursuing happiness on earth is almost certainly doomed to end in failure.

If these postulates are incorrect (and I can’t imagine anyone who would argue in favor of them, although I assume that such people exist), then Objectivism is false.

Even if Atlas Shrugged espouses a failed philosophy, it is not a complete waste of time—after all, it kept my interest though 1200 pages. While Objectivism and collectivism are both wholly wrong, Objectivism is much closer to the truth. However, the respect with which Ayn Rand is regarded in conservative circles baffles me. The book has some bright spots—but it’s still pretty bad.

32 Comments:

At May 7, 2008 at 4:51 AM , Blogger Beth said...

I agree that Rand's ideas that our morals should be lead by selfishness that doesn't include some sense to responsibility to others is wrong, but if you don't think that this book is anything like the real world today, you aren't paying attention, Daniel.

Look at the minimum wage, the government telling businesses how much to pay their employees.

Look at how many people think the oil companies today are evil because (gasp) they are making a profit.

Look at how Hillary wants to somehow take the profits from oil companies to try to pay yours and my gasoline tax. (Doesn't she realize the oil companies increased cost will get charged right back to us consumers?)

Look at welfare, look at entitlements!

I should copy what I wrote under your Random Thoughts section about the book, but then again Daniel you never seem to continue the discussions you start.

 
At May 7, 2008 at 6:41 AM , Blogger Name: Soapboxgod said...

Having taken a year's worth of Objectivist Theory and Objectivist Philosophy in College and two Summer courses offered by the Institute, I was curious to hear your thoughts upon completion of the Atlas Shrugged:

As is my nature, I'd like to post my comments in response to yours.

"Objectivism is founded on several flawed principles—that man is not a social animal, that altruism is a moral evil, that man can become truly happy while on earth, and that material wealth is the way to happiness."

Those are not the principles of Obejectivism Daniel. While they may be your interpretation of them, it is unfair to cite them as flawed when in fact you have not cited them as they truly exist.

The principles of Objectivism are as follows:

Metaphysics: Objective Reality
Epistemology: Reason
Ethics: Self-interest
Politics: Capitalism

Metaphysics
"Reality, the external world, exists independent of man's consciousness, independent of any observer's knowledge, beliefs, feelings, desires or fears. This means that A is A, that facts are facts, that things are what they are—and that the task of man's consciousness is to perceive reality, not to create or invent it." Thus Objectivism rejects any belief in the supernatural—and any claim that individuals or groups create their own reality.

Epistemology
"Man's reason is fully competent to know the facts of reality. Reason, the conceptual faculty, is the faculty that identifies and integrates the material provided by man's senses. Reason is man's only means of acquiring knowledge." Thus Objectivism rejects mysticism (any acceptance of faith or feeling as a means of knowledge), and it rejects skepticism (the claim that certainty or knowledge is impossible).

Human Nature
Man is a rational being. Reason, as man's only means of knowledge, is his basic means of survival. But the exercise of reason depends on each individual's choice. "Man is a being of volitional consciousness." "That which you call your soul or spirit is your consciousness, and that which you call 'free will' is your mind's freedom to think or not, the only will you have, your only freedom. This is the choice that controls all the choices you make and determines your life and character."Thus Objectivism rejects any form of determinism, the belief that man is a victim of forces beyond his control (such as God, fate, upbringing, genes, or economic conditions).

Ethics
"Reason is man's only proper judge of values and his only proper guide to action. The proper standard of ethics is: man's survival qua man—i.e., that which is required by man's nature for his survival as a rational being (not his momentary physical survival as a mindless brute). Rationality is man's basic virtue, and his three fundamental values are: reason, purpose, self-esteem. Man—every man—is an end in himself, not a means to the ends of others; he must live for his own sake, neither sacrificing himself to others nor sacrificing others to himself; he must work for his rational self-interest, with the achievement of his own happiness as the highest moral purpose of his life. (there is nothing therein which suggest that by living as a rational being that man can "become truly happy on earth". What it puts forth is the motive for man's existence; the inalienable right of the Pursuit of Happiness if you will.). Thus Objectivism rejects any form of altruism—the claim that morality consists in living for others or for society.

Politics
"The basic social principle of the Objectivist ethics is that no man has the right to seek values from others by means of physical force—i.e., no man or group has the right to initiate the use of physical force against others. Men have the right to use force only in self-defense and only against those who initiate its use. Men must deal with one another as traders, giving value for value, by free, mutual consent to mutual benefit. The only social system that bars physical force from human relationships is laissez-faire capitalism. Capitalism is a system based on the recognition of individual rights, including property rights, in which the only function of the government is to protect individual rights, i.e., to protect men from those who initiate the use of physical force." Thus Objectivism rejects any form of collectivism, such as fascism or socialism. It also rejects the current "mixed economy" notion that the government should regulate the economy and redistribute wealth.

Esthetics
"Art is a selective re-creation of reality according to an artist's metaphysical value-judgments." The purpose of art is to concretize the artist's fundamental view of existence. Ayn Rand described her own approach to art as "Romantic Realism": "I am a Romantic in the sense that I present men as they ought to be. I am Realistic in the sense that I place them here and now and on this earth." The goal of Ayn Rand's novels is not didactic but artistic: the projection of an ideal man: "My purpose, first cause and prime mover is the portrayal of Howard Roark or John Galt or Hank Rearden or Francisco d'Anconia as an end in himself—not as a means to any further end."

"...and that material wealth is the way to happiness."

I'm afraid you've really mischaracterized the principles of Objectivism with that statement. I've provided a clear cut example from Mrs. Rand's own book "The Virtue of Selfishness" which correctly asserts by way of her philosophy that it is not "material wealth" which serves as the road to happiness as you've asserted. Rather, man's perception of his own happiness will be predicated according to the heirarchy of his values

"Concern for the welfare of those one loves is a rational part of one’s selfish interests. If a man who is passionately in love with his wife spends a fortune to cure her of a dangerous illness, it would be absurd to claim that he does it as a “sacrifice” for her sake, not his own, and that it makes no difference to him, personally and selfishly, whether she lives or dies.

Any action that a man undertakes for the benefit of those he loves is not a sacrifice if, in the hierarchy of his values, in the total context of the choices open to him, it achieves that which is of greatest personal (and rational) importance to him (i.e., achieves that which makes him happy). In the above example, his wife’s survival is of greater value to the husband than anything else that his money could buy, it is of greatest importance to his own happiness and, therefore, his action is not a sacrifice.

But suppose he let her die in order to spend his money on saving the lives of ten other women, none of whom meant anything to him—as the ethics of altruism would require. That would be a sacrifice. Here the difference between Objectivism and altruism can be seen most clearly: if sacrifice is the moral principle of action, then that husband should sacrifice his wife for the sake of ten other women. What distinguishes the wife from the ten others? Nothing but her value to the husband who has to make the choice—nothing but the fact that his happiness requires her survival.

The Objectivist ethics would tell him: your highest moral purpose is the achievement of your own happiness, your money is yours, use it to save your wife, that is your moral right and your rational, moral choice."

 
At May 7, 2008 at 7:25 AM , Blogger S. Weasel said...

I get this and the Fountainhead confused. Rand is for teenagers. It's not that she's wrong -- far from it -- it's that she's got the absolutist mentality of a young 'un.

I quit Rand over her sex scenes. She clearly had rapist sexual fantasies. Creeeeep-y.

 
At May 7, 2008 at 8:11 AM , Blogger Name: Soapboxgod said...

"I quit Rand over her sex scenes. She clearly had rapist sexual fantasies."

I have a friend that said that very thing. I guess I never really interpreted them that way. But then, the sex scenes weren't what I was reading her work for.

 
At May 7, 2008 at 8:46 AM , Blogger Name: Soapboxgod said...

"...and that material wealth is the way to happiness."

Let's also not forget Rand's opinions and philosophy regarding wealth (i.e., money) in the soliloquy of Francisco D'Anconia not to mention the actions of him and the other productive characters in the book. Their motives were less about monetary gains than they were about being the best within themselves in whatever endeavor they so took.

Case in point in the book when Dagny encounters Hugh Akston working as a cook in a diner.

 
At May 7, 2008 at 11:14 AM , Blogger Beth said...

Good point about material wealth, Soapster, also recall how in the valley the amount charged say for a Halley concert was one penny. It meant more to Halley that his music was appreciated than it was to make lots of money at it.

As for the sex, it seemed consentual to me.

 
At May 7, 2008 at 11:21 AM , Blogger Beth said...

Another important aspect of Atlas is the point that the Washington types who think they are really above the law, living quite well off and making decisions based on their own personal friendships or agendas.

(Daniel, think Mark Dann.)

 
At May 7, 2008 at 11:22 AM , Blogger Daniel Ruwe said...

I'll continue this discussion, Beth.

First, s. weasel is right about the sex scenes. They were incredibly creepy.

Two, Soapie's comments about Objectivism's principles, while true, as pretty loose. Most of them are applicable to almost any theory. However, the idea of selfishness good, altruism bad, the belief that happiness can be found on earth, and that selfishness and material goods bring happiness set Ojectivism aside from other philosophies.

My quarrel with Rand rested not so much in her portrayal of of collectivist goals, but her portrayal of collectivists as utterly incompetent and uncharismatic. They aren't either. They are very good at achieving their goals, and they make people love them, at least at first.

Also, communism doesn't really lead to social breakdown, as portrayed in Atlas Shrugged, but more like an overriding sense of mediocrity.

I'll have more comments later, these might be a little disjointed. Also, I think that Rand doesn't quite understand altruism, which I'll expand on a little.

 
At May 7, 2008 at 11:27 AM , Blogger Daniel Ruwe said...

One of the things about AS that struck me the most was the idea that everything should have a material value. The scene where Galt rents a car from Mulligan, even when there is no reason to--I don't think that that sort of "value" could lead to happiness. I don't, as a rule, think government should take money to others--but I also think that giving money to others as altruism is is a definite moral good. Look at Bill Gates--he has made (in the Atlas Shrugged sense) more money that Fransisco d'Actonia (is that the spelling?) could ever dream of--and now he is giving a great deal of it away. He's not getting any value there, but I don't think that he could spend his money better.

 
At May 7, 2008 at 11:54 AM , Blogger Name: Soapboxgod said...

"Look at Bill Gates--he has made (in the Atlas Shrugged sense) more money that Fransisco D'Anconia could ever dream of--and now he is giving a great deal of it away. He's not getting any value there, but I don't think that he could spend his money better."

That is where you are wrong with respect to Objectivist philosophy Daniel.

Objectivist philosophy holds that everything that one does, they first do it for themselves. By that very premise, it is completely untrue (under Objectivist philosophy) to then proclaim that Bill Gates gives his money away without receiving any value in return.

By the hierarchy of Bill Gates' values, the value he receives from giving money away is first and foremost within himself in the simple fact that he perhaps feels good about giving opportunity and prosperity towards others.

There is value in that.

Mother Teresa is another example. While the argument goes that she gave so much to help others, her desire to do so was first and foremost for herself because her mind processed that directive. Her mind is the driving force of her own freewill. She devoted her time and energy towards helping others because in the hierarchy or her values, it was her highest moral principle and the thing that made her happiest and brought her closer to God which was too important to her (more so than amassing wealth).

 
At May 7, 2008 at 11:57 AM , Blogger Beth said...

Maybe another way of looking at it in my opinion, is giving to someone else in need really doing something good if your church tells you it is a good thing to do? If you are doing it only because someone else tells you it's good, then that is not using a sense of personal morality, but rather an obligation.

 
At May 7, 2008 at 1:08 PM , Blogger Name: Soapboxgod said...

"If you are doing it only because someone else tells you it's good, then that is not using a sense of personal morality, but rather an obligation."

Either way, at the end of the day, it is your own mind which makes such a decision. You could say that a man only gives charitably because his church advocates it. But then, wouldn't we do well to ask what part of the man brings him to set foot in a church anyway??

We're talking Atlas Shrugged and Objectivist philosophy here so I'll comment on that under that premise.

If you try to make the argument that someone operates because they are told to do so by someone else, that ignores the concept of freewill and the mind. If you tell me to go to the store and buy a loaf of bread, your mere directive is not going to move my legs and make me take the money out of my wallet to make such a purchase.

I cannot do that very thing until I adopt what it is that you are asking of me. If you make the argument that some people donate money because their church urges them to do so and not merely because they themselves think it the right thing to do, you undermine the concept of freewill and the process of the mind which Rand advocates.

That is why in the book, Galt and the others went to the Valley. They did not wish to adopt the premise of the "looters". And, as such, the looters mere directives alone weren't enough to move the country towards prosperity.

 
At May 7, 2008 at 2:34 PM , Blogger Daniel Ruwe said...

Here is my main disagreement with Rand--I believe that everyone has a moral obligation to help others. Note that that is moral, not legal--the only person who can force you to do so is yourself. Even if you don't get any benefit from it, it is your moral duty to do so.

In Randian philosophy, it is only permissable to give charity if you recieve some benefit. Although in practice, this sort of thing seems to be discouraged, as none of her main characters offer any help of any kind. But charity (in my view), is not optional, it is a moral obligation.

Note again, a moral obligation, not a legal one. There is no excuse for a government or another outside authority taking your money for charitable purposes.

And another thing about Atlas Shrugged that struck me--the utter lack of concern for the minor characters. Eddie Willers is stuck on a lonesome railroad track to starve, Cheryl commits suicide, and nobody seems to mind. Couldn't John Galt have taken some time off of dollar blessing and rescued at least one of them?

 
At May 7, 2008 at 4:00 PM , Anonymous Jeff Montgomery said...

Daniel said: "I believe that everyone has a moral obligation to help others"

Yet that viewpoint is not supported by the nature of human life, and if practiced consistently will lead to unhappiness and destruction. That was one of the main ideas in Atlas Shrugged.

An egoistic individual may properly help others, but they do not have an a priori *moral obligation* to do so. Rand's "The Virtue of Selfishness" contains a detailed explanation of her idea of the source of morality, as well as of the 3 cardinal values she advocates (reason, purpose, self-esteem), and how they are grounded in the nature and requirements of human existence. It also explains the relationship between giving and altruism (they are not the same thing) and her ethics.

 
At May 7, 2008 at 7:00 PM , Blogger Name: Soapboxgod said...

Good points all Jeff. The Virtue of Selfishness is not often referenced when Rand's name comes up but it is indeed one of her best. It being a collection of essays, it is straight to the point without the storytelling of Atlas and The Fountainhead.

And Daniel, I too felt bad about Eddie Willers in the end.

"In Randian philosophy, it is only permissable to give charity if you recieve some benefit."

Again, that's not entirely accurate. I think it's more appropriate to say that according to the premise of her philosophy, there is a benefit associated with any charitable giving despite one's belief to the contrary.

She merely asserts this. What your inferring is that one just sort of gives to charity without any thought whatsoever as to the benefit.

Whether the benefit is a tax write off, social status as a philanthropist, or just a sense of moral obligation as you suggest, in any case there is a benefit associated with such a contribution. Are you inferring that there is no benefit to be found in your moral obligation??

I would argue that a sense of wellness and inner peace would serve as your benefit. By Mrs. Rand's philosophy, she'd make a similar argument.

 
At May 8, 2008 at 3:21 AM , Blogger Beth said...

Poor Eddie, not only was he abandoned in the end, he also was the only guy who loved and admired Dagny who didn't get to sleep with her!

My favorite character is Hank. For one thing, he didn't inherit his business like Dagny and Francisco did, he built it from scratch.

Also, he tried to do the right thing by his family, and even sacrificed everything for the woman he loved, even was willing to give her up so she could be happy.

In the end, his workers admired him so greatly they were willing to literally fight for him.

 
At May 8, 2008 at 6:46 PM , Blogger Daniel Ruwe said...

Rand believes that charity should be a cost/benefit analysis, while I (and I think most others) believe that it is more a moral obligation.

Rand's positions on many issues are hard to decipher--at least just from reading Atlas Shrugged--but her characters aren't really people I would want to be. They really are cold, unfeeling technocrats--they display no kindness or emotion. I find the idea that making money is the highest good is distasteful--and not really true. Look at those men who have done the most to advance the world materially--Edison, Einstein, Pasteur. They lived fairly comfortably, but certainly didn't get rich beyond the dreams of avarice. I just don't see Rand's principles working in real life.

 
At May 9, 2008 at 6:06 AM , Blogger Name: Soapboxgod said...

Daniel, again, that is a gross missinterpretation when you infer that she thinks making money is the highest moral good or principle.

What she says over and over and over again and what her philosophy asserts is that productivity is the highest moral good or principle.

Go back to I believe about page 384 and re-read Francisco D'Anconia's speech with respect to money.

It's not about the money because money is only the mere byproduct of productivity. Through productive means, man asserts the best within himself.

 
At October 31, 2008 at 10:49 AM , OpenID downcastmysoul said...

Hi,

I'm reviewing Galt's Speech and Atlas Shrugged. I think every action we do for good is selfish because it gives us some kind of positive benefit (like increased self esteem, a closer relationship with God). What I find odd is that the Objectivists ended up just swallowing the Republican platform instead of thinking for themselves, when Rand said BOTH parties are about slavery.

Accepting endless war in Iraq is one thing I do not undertand an Objectivist would do as the war on Iraq was not even based on a threat to the US. Both parties are the same: just 2 sides of the same coin.

The Democrats would like control of the body while the Republicans would like control of the mind. A Republicrat or a Demmican would advocate total slavery! The production a slave produces will not be worth much more than the cost of the whip used to control him/her.

The sex in AS is hot hot hot. I wish I could find a "Hank" or a "Francisco" or a "GALT". It's done tastefully not like sex scenes in novels today. The sex was not just carnal lust but and awakening for the characters involved. Too bad the sex was not experienced in the context of a marriage.

I find that Eddie Willers, Cheryl Taggart, and the Wet Nurse are sacrificial characters that Rand created to show who will suffer under "looter" society. I agree that Eddie is the most pitiful of the three.

 
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